Skip links

Poland VAT country guide

VAT compliance and reporting rules in Poland

Below is summary of the major rules provided under Polish VAT rules (VAT Act and Decrees from Ministry of Finance), plus adoption of EU VAT Directive provisions . Check our country VAT guides for other jurisdictions.

Our VAT Calculator & VAT Filer products on a single platform, VAT Calc,  are unique in they come with all of this included out-of-the box for Poland and scores of other countries around the world.

Poland VAT country guide

Highlights Local term Podatek od towarow i uslug (PTU)
VAT Rates - standard 23%
VAT Rates - reduced 8% ; 5%; 0%
VAT number format PL 1234567890 international transactions. 1234567890 for domestic only traders
Registration threshold PLN 200,000 for residents. Non-residents must register immediately. PLN 50,000 for pan-EU digital services and goods OSS return. Intra-community acquisitions PLN 42,000
VAT Group January 2023
VAT recovery foreign businesses Yes, but requires reciprocity agreement for non-EU businesses
Fiscal Representative Required for all no-EU businesses (UK and Norway excluded)
Currency Zloty, PLN
Administration Introduction VAT was introduced in July 1993 as part of Poland's preparations to join the EU. It joined the European Union 2004
VAT laws Ustawa o podatku od towarów i usług (UPTiU): VAT Act and Decrees from Ministry of Finance; Also EU VAT Directive which takes supremacy as part of EU membership
Tax Authorities Ministry of Finance
VAT Rates Standard rate 23%
Reduced rates 8% (Annex 3 to the UPTiU) basic foodstuffs; animals and related products; passenger transport; travel services; some entertainment services; restaurants and catering; certain labour-intensive services; books and newspapers; health services; hotel and overnight accommodation. 5% non-processed foods; certain agricultural supplies, e-books
Zero-rated Intra-community passenger travel by air and sea; Exports and intra-community supplies of goods; gold to central banks; e-journals published weekly
Exempt Education; financial services; health, hospital,  and social welfare; postal; letting immovable property; betting and gambling; welfare services
Scope of VAT Scope of VAT Provision of domestic taxable goods and services; EU imports; intra-community acquisitions; Distance selling of goods B2C (OSS or IOSS); receipt of services or goods via the reverse charge
Time of supply Goods & Services (general rule) Goods at time of delivery or transfer of title. Services at time of provision - certain services when invoice issued or should have been issued. Advance payments when received will also be liable to VAT
Reverse Charge Same as normal goods & services rules. May be deducted in customer's VAT return in period of supply or following period only
Continuous  Services At time of provision or invoicing. Payments also trigger VAT tax point. If no invoice within one year, then VAT due.
Imports At time of clearance into Poland. Registered VAT payers (including Authorise Economic Operators) may use the VAT return reverse charge to avoid a cash payment of VAT
Goods on approval and return No special rules. Regular delivery or payment date determines tax point
Registration VAT registration threshold PLN 200,000 for residents. Non-residents must register immediately. PLN 50,000 for pan-EU digital services and goods OSS return. Intra-community acquisitions PLN 42,000
Voluntary VAT registration Not possible
VAT number format PL 1234567890 international transactions. 1234567890 for domestic only traders
VAT Group Not available. Proposal for introduction in 2022
Non-residents Similar requirement to resident, but with no VAT registration threshold. The reverse charge is used (see separate section) on range of B2B goods as well as services
Fiscal Representative Non-EU traders must appoint a resident fiscal representative (must be accountant or customs agent) who is jointly and severally liable for their client's VAT. Exception is made where a mutual assistance agreement has been signed (e.g. the UK and Norway)
Digital Services Poland participates in the EU single  One Stop Shop (OSS) VAT return for digital, telecoms and broadcast services. This was formerly the MOSS regime until 30 June 2021
Pre VAT registration costs Allowable in practise by tax office. Requires pre-registration VAT return supporting business-related inputs only
VAT Invoices Issuance Invoice should be issued by 15th of the month following the provision of the supply. Advance invoices may not be sent out any earlier than 30 days before provision of goods or services. B2C invoices not mandatory unless requested.
Content Date; unique sequential invoice number; name and address of supplier and customer; Customer VAT number for intra-community supplies or reverse charge; date of supply or advance payment if different from invoice date; Description, quantity or units etc of supply of goods or services; price per unit; taxable amount; VAT charged; rate (broken out if supplies at different rates); total; explanation if zero-rated supply; fiscal representative's details if applicable
E-invoices Poland e-invoices January 2024
Simplified invoices Yes, for invoices not exceeding PLN 450
Self-billing Permitted with agreement between the supplier and customer.
Retention of invoices Five years from the end of the tax year the invoice was issued - so up to six years. Ten years for supplies of broadcast, telecoms and electronic (digital services). Polish entities must retain paper invoices within the country or electronic out of the country if readably accessible. Non-residents may retain invoices outside of the country.
FX rules Can use other currencies, but VAT amount must be shown in zloty. The exchange rate of the previous day from the Polish National Bank (or ECB) should be used for conversion
Invoice corrections Correcting invoice should be issued for refunds and discounts, referring to original invoice. Customers may change invoices if they find errors via a Correcting Note referring to the invoice and reasons for adjustment
Compliance Right to deduct Excluded: restaurant and accommodation; self-billing invoices unaccepted by the supplier
Call-off stock Following the EU 2020 Quick Fixes reforms, non-residents may avoid VAT registration if delivering goods (Call off stock) on account to a single customer under their control but with no immediate change of title. The goods must be sold or returned within 12 months
Reverse Charge - B2B Applied on goods supplied by non-residents without a VAT registration to customers with a Polish VAT registration. No longer used on domestic supplies, instead use Split Payments (see separate section) on: natural gas and electricity; construction services; immovable property; waste; computers; mobile phones; investment gold, certain valuable metals; carbon permits
Cash discounts No requirement to adjust invoices or returns if discount taken up
Bad debt relief 90 days following invoice payment deadline. Recovery via VAT return
Import VAT deferment Permitted by traders approved by customs. This includes being Authorised Economic Operator, and having no poor recent compliance issues. There is a further option for deferral of payment until 16th of the following month
VAT warehouse Poland operates public and private-owned bonded customs warehouses where goods may be traded VAT-exempt prior to import or reexport
Supply & install
Use and enjoyment services Not applicable on most services. In place for electronic, broadcast and telemcoms services. Also some passenger transport services.
Capital goods adjustment period Movable property: five years. Immovable property: ten years
Non-residents VAT recovery EU businesses may apply for Polish VAT reclaims through the electronic portal of the tax authorities of their company of residency (8th Directive). Quarterly claims above €400 permitted, with final claim above €50 by 30 Sept of following year.  Non-EU businesses must submit a paper-reclaim with supporting invoices and statement of no Polish trading via the Polish authorities directly (13th Directive). This is only permitted if Poland has a reciprocity agreement with home country of claimant.
VAT on Digital Services Poland  follows the EU VAT on digital services regime, introduced in 2015. This includes participation in the One-Stop-Shop (OSS) single EU VAT return (formerly MOSS until 30 June 2021)
Live events VAT registration required as VAT due locally
Distance selling threshold for goods Nil. Following the EU ecommerce VAT package reforms from 1 July 2021, local Polish VAT must be charged on all sales by non-Polish EU e-commerce sellers shipping from within the EU. Imported distance sales not exceeding €150 liable to Polish sales VAT with  IOSS return option
Cash accounting scheme Yes, optional for small taxpayers PLN 5.5m annual turnover or less. VAT due only when cash paid but no later than 180 days from date provided. Intra-community supplies (including call-off stock) and vouchers excluded.
VAT registered cash tills Yes since 2004 for retailers with sales in excess of PLN 20,000 per annum. New online cash registers with automated transaction reporting due to be fully implemented by 2023
Statute of limitations Five years following the end of the accounting period of the transaction(s)
Other Tax payers should only make invoice payments to other approved tax payers and approved bank accounts as per tax office's published 'white list'. Poland operates an optional Split Payment mechanism since July 2018 for paying VAT direct to locked bank account of customer. This is mandated for goods under risk of fraud since November 2019. The supplier's VAT bank account may then only be used to settle VAT liabilities with the state
VAT Returns Frequency SAF-T (see separate section) replaces the VAT return from October 2020. SAF-T is filled monthly taxpayers by the 25th of the following month. Smaller taxpayers (PLN 550m) may file quarterly on application. There is no annual VAT return.
Filing method Electronic only
Deadlines (inc payments) 25th of the following month
VAT credits May be refunded into bank account located in Poland only. Or rolled over to future returns with limit of five years. Refunds should be paid within 60 days unless audit raised
Corrections Only via corrective return (SAF-T) within 14 days, and should include late interest in case of extra VAT due. In the case of a refund, will require letter of correction requesting roll over or refund
Non-residents As per residents
Other filings Monthly European Sales Listing for goods and services supplies without any threshold. Intrastat monthly by the 10th of the following month  for supply of goods above threshold: dispatches: PLN 108m; arrivals: PLN 65m. 
SAF-T Polish SAF-T mandatory rules
Penalties & interest 8% interest on late payments. Further 30% charge for misstatement of VAT liabilities. This may be reduced for voluntary disclosure and/or rapid payment. PLN500 fine for individual errors in SAF-T resulting in VAT not being verified
B2C Distance Selling returns Poland participates in the One-Stop-Shop OSS pan-EU VAT return for distance selling, introduced in July 2021.

Newsletter

Get our latest news right in your mailbox